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初中英语八种时态归纳复习  

2015-01-19 11:59:12|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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(2014-03-20 14:56:59)

            专题复习: 时态  

  Ⅰ.       初中英语八种时态归纳复习

时态是英语学习中一个至关重要的内容,广大初中学生在实际运用时,往往对时态总是倍感棘手,下面我们就归纳复习一下这几种时态。

一、一般现在时:

   概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。

时间状语:always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…), once a week, on Sundays, etc.

基本结构:①be动词;②行为动词

否定形式:①am/is/are+not;

②此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don't,如主语为第三人称单数,则用doesn't,同时还原行为动词。

一般疑问句:①把be动词放于句首;

②用助动词do提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时,还原行为动词。

二、一般过去时:

   概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。

时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc.

基本结构:①be动词;②行为动词

否定形式:①was/were+not;②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

一般疑问句:①was或were放于句首;②用助动词do的过去式did 提问,同时还原行为动词。

三、现在进行时:

    概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

时间状语:now, at this time, these days, etc.

基本结构:am/is/are+doing

否定形式:am/is/are+not+doing.

一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首。

四、过去进行时:

   概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that time或以when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。

基本结构:was/were+doing

否定形式:was/were + not + doing.

一般疑问句:把was或were放于句首。

五、现在完成时:

   概念:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

时间状语:recently, lately, since…for…,in the past few years, etc.

基本结构:have /has + done

否定形式:have /has + not +done.

一般疑问句:have或has。

六、过去完成时:

   概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即“过去的过去”。

时间状语:before, by the end of last year(term, month…),etc.

基本结构:had + done.

否定形式:had + not + done.

一般疑问句:had放于句首。

七、一般将来时:

   概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few minutes, by…,the day after tomorrow, etc.

基本结构:①am/is/are/going to + do;②will/shall + do.

否定形式:①was/were + not; ②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

一般疑问句:①be放于句首;②will/shall提到句首。

八、过去将来时:

    概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。

时间状语:the next day(morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc.

基本结构:①was/were/going to + do;②would/should + do.

否定形式:①was/were/not + going to + do;②would/should + not + do.

一般疑问句:①was或were放于句首;②would/should 提到句首。

Ⅱ. 几种常見时态的相互转换

英语中的几种时态在一定情况下可以互相转换,以下是几种常見的转换形式:

一、一般过去时与现在完成时的转换

在现在完成时中,延续性动词能与表示一段时间的状语连用,瞬间动词却不能。但是,可用別的表达方式:①瞬间动词用于“一段时间 + ago”的一般过去时的句型中;②瞬间动词可改成与之相对应的延续性动词及短语,与一段时间連用;③瞬间动词用于“It is + 一段时间 + since + 一般过去时”的句型中,表示“自从……以来有……时间”的意思,主句一般用it is来代替It has been;④瞬间动词用于“Some time has passed since + 一般过去时”的句型中。请看:

A. He joined the League two years ago.

B. He has been in the League for two years.

C. It is two years since he joined the League.

D. Two years has passed since he joined the League.

二、一般现在时与现在进行时的转换

在一般现在时中,at加上名词表示“处于某种状态”,如at work(在工作), at school(上学、上课)等。此短语可与进行时态转换。请看:

Peter is at work, but Mike is at play.

Peter is working, but Mike is playing.

三、现在进行时与一般将来时的转换

在现在进行时态中go, come, leave, start, arrive等动词常与表示将来的时间状语連用表示将要发生的动作。如:I am coming, Mum! 意为“我就来,妈妈!”请看:

The train is leaving soon.

The train will leave soon.

四、“be going to+动词原形”与“will(shall)+动词原形”结构的转换

“be going to+动词原形”、表示打算、计划要做的事;将来时“will(shall)+动词原形”结构在书面语中,当主语为第一人称时,常用助动词shall。在口语中,所有人称都可以用will。请看:

We are going to visit the Great Wall next Sunday.

We shall visit the Great Wall next Sunday

 Ⅱ.    练习巩固1 

用括号中动词的适当的形式填空。

1. The boy is happy because he ___________ (sell) out all

   the newspapers.

2. The plan _____________ (give) up because of rain.

3. If it _______ (not rain) tomorrow, we _______ (go )fishing.

4. Where ____________ you____________(be) these days?

5. Where is Tom? He _________ (go) to the post office.

   He said he _________ (come) back soon.

6. Mike says he _________ (want )to be a worker after he

   _________ (finish )school.

7.The last bus __________ just ________(leave) when they

  ________(get) to the bus stop.

8. She ______ (not go) to bed until she_____

   (finish) her work.

9. Light ___________(travel )much faster than sound.

10. I __________ (feel) much better after I _______

   (take) the medicine.

11. Where ________we________ (meet)?

    Let’s meet outside the park gate.

12.I_____ (be) afraid Mr Johnson ______(not visit)

   our school tomorrow.

13. I _________ (lost) my bike. _________you ______(see) it

    anywhere?

14. _______ this kind of car _______ (produce) in  Shanghai?

15. We _______ (see) several members of the family

   since we________ (arrive)

16.I found that the students _________ (play) football

   on the playground.

17.The shop ___________ (close) at this time of day.

18.Where ________ your watch _________ (lose)?

19. ________ the doctor __________ (send) for last night?

20. Three children ___________ (take) good care

   by the nurse.

21.Some children _________ (take ) good care by the nurse.

22. Some new houses _________ (build) by the villagers

    themselves.

23. What language ________ (speak) in Australia?

24. The colour TV _________ (buy) in that shop three

   days ago.

25. He said he __________ (stay) here for another two days.

26.The doctor said Jim must ________ (operate ) on

   at once.

27. ----__________ the bridge _______ (repair) yet?

    ---- Yes, the workers_______ already______ (repair) it.

28. We are in Grade One this year, so we _________ (teach )

    physics next year.

29. ----Where ________ (be) you last night?

   ----I _________ (ask) Tom to help at home.

30.The big tree _______ (blow)down in the storm last night.

31.I________ never ________ (eat) such delicious

   noodles before.

32.When we reached the town, it _______ (get) dark.

33. We ____ (have) lunch when suddenly someone knocked

   at the door.

34. Lucy said she ________ (visit) the school the

    next month.

35. I ________ (wait) until he comes back.

36. You ________ (watch) TV after supper, aren’t  you?

37. They _________ (be) to that small village several times.

39. Can you tell me if it _________ (snow) tomorrow?

40. Could you tell me if you _______ (read) the story book?

41. He said the lights in the room ______ (go) out when

   he opened the door.

42. I _________ (be) fifteen soon.

43. Tom, your aunt _______ (come) this afternoon .

44. My teacher often _________ (tell) us not to play on

   the street.

45.They________ (plant) trees on the hill. Do you see?

46. The teacher said that the earth __________ (move)

   round the  sun.

47.She said she _______ (put) on a new coat the next day.

48.The Great Wall _________ (know) all over the world.

49. Could you tell me where Alice ________ (live)?

50.________ the film ______ (show) many times since

   last Sunday.

51.______ the street lights usually _______ (turn) on

    at seven in summer evening?

52.I_____ (not go) to the cinema because I ___ (see) the

    film before.

53. It _____ (get) dark. What about ____ (go) home at once?

54.You ________ (be) late if you __________ (not hurry).

55.Use your head and you _________ (find) a better way.

56.Look!Someone ________ (lie) on the floor.

57.It __________ (rain) harder now. It ________ (rain)

   quite often in summer.

58.Here _______ (come) the bus.

59. I don’t know when the manager_______ (return),

   but  when be ______ (come) back I_____ (let) you know.

60. ----Where ________(be) you this time yesterday?

   ----I________ (be) at home. I _______ (go) over

      my  lessons then.”

 

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